Open markets, closed societies: The dual assimilation of immigrants in Western Europe


This paper provides an examination of seven groups of first- and second-generation immigrants in Western Europe. The aim of this study is to track the trajectories of these immigrants’ economic and social assimilation and to compare them. Data from the European Social Survey (ESS) and the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) are integrated here in a multilevel analysis. Findings show that while Western European immigrants show an improvement in economic indicators over time and generations, they show no improvement in social indicators. Thus, this study proposes a model of dual assimilation, which more closely reflects the Western European context than existing models.